Experience Planner has some great posts today on the value of T-Shaped thinking in the workplace. Don't just sit there. Go check it out.
Experience Planner has some great posts today on the value of T-Shaped thinking in the workplace. Don't just sit there. Go check it out.
Luke Wroblewski over at Funtioning Form has put together a nice set of links that compile Design Thinking and Strategy approaches. Some of the resources include Tim Brown, Dan Pink, Roger Martin and Dan Saffer. Definitelty one to save.
There’s been a good deal of examples on the internet recently of experimenting with live data in visual formats. Etsy did this a while back by offering some very non-standard ways to browse products.
Here are two more. Swarm shows you activity on the Web (based on people who have registered) then shows you linking paths. You can also click on each of the screens for more info:
“Swarm is a graphical map of hundreds of websites, all connecting to each other. It updates itself every second with where people are going and coming from. As sites become more popular, they move towards the center of the swarm and grow larger. Conversely, sites that lose traffic move away from the center and grow smaller.
Website traffic is symbolized with thin lines. Each time you see a line appear, it means someone has moved from one site to the other. You can gauge how many people are swarming around based on the number of lines.”
We Feel Fine is a another data visualization that takes peoples entries from all over the globe and randomizes them into an organic living interface. It’s hard for me to describe—so I’ll reference their own words:
“Since August 2005, We Feel Fine has been harvesting human feelings from a large number of weblogs. Every few minutes, the system searches the world's newly posted blog entries for occurrences of the phrases "I feel" and "I am feeling". When it finds such a phrase, it records the full sentence, up to the period, and identifies the "feeling" expressed in that sentence (e.g. sad, happy, depressed, etc.). Because blogs are structured in largely standard ways, the age, gender, and geographical location of the author can often be extracted and saved along with the sentence, as can the local weather conditions at the time the sentence was written. All of this information is saved.”
Check them out. Visualware is picking up steam.
Fom Zachary Jean Paradis, of the many brilliant students at Chicago's Institute of Design:
"For marketers, product developers and venture capitalists who are dissatisfied with traditional trend forecasting and market research reports, MindshareViz is a real-time trend visualization too that reveals consumer intent through online search behavior."
"What many of the IIT-type individuals may not realize is that they are marketers in a sense. The digital products/experiences
they help design are enabling people to connect with brands as
well as each other. You Tube, Flickr, Technorati, Typepad,
Facebook—these are the open source platforms that help us market
directly to each other. And the design thinkers at IIT have the right
skills to develop these platforms and make them work."
Google expands it's video offering by supporting a new breed of interactive advertising...
Getty Images has teamed up with several design firms including one of my favorites (Barbarian Group) to produce 10 ways, an experiment which pushes the boundaries of interactive technologies and design. The site is a pretty amazing display of creativity. It reminds me of some of the exhibitions I used to see at the Whitney. If you have 10 minutes to waste—do it here.
CBS Sunday Morning had an excellent piece on the influence of design in business. Some choice excerpts:
"Design has the power and the influence to actually make very large social and behavioral shifts in the world. And design, I think, is a very nice tool, an instrument really to shape human behavior,"
"Designers try the little bits to change the world. But in truth what I think that they're really good at is taking major developments, major revolutions, technological, historical, social or otherwise and what they do is they make them understandable, usable, manageable by normal people,"
"Great design is a combination of two things. It's a combination of usefulness or utility and emotion. What it draws people to things of which beauty is part of it,"
"We call it cross-fertilization. That you learn when you work for one industry, that you learn for the other industry. It's amazing, what kind of insight you gain from, what kind of thoughts are being developed,"
Here it is. The slide heard 'round the design community and blogoshpere. From Roger Martin's (Rotman School of Management) "Designing in Hostile Territory" presented at IIT's Strategy '06 conference. In it he takes on the "communication gap" that exists between creative thinkers and business people (Reliability vs. Validity). He challenges designers to view this difference in mindset as a "design problem" which needs to be solved—and engourages both types of individuals to strive for more balance in their thinking.
The presentation can be downloaded here.
Excellent conference. Podcasts, photos and blog can be found here.
(I'm a guest blogger on the conference site)
Remember those old EF Hutton Ads where everyone stopped in their tracks to listen to what they were saying? I've noticed that Cooper has a less dramatic, but similar effect in the industry. A couple of days ago, they released one of their newsletters, and I've been getting lot's of e-mail activity around some of the topics. Also noticed some references on a handful of industry blogs.
Cooper is a pioneer in User Experience/Interaction Design, and the Founder Alan Cooper did a lot of influential work in defining interactive Personas. If you don't want to subscribe to their newsletter, you can keep tabs on the topics here.
Is IBM innovative? Guess that's arguable, but there's no doubt that between efforts like Titanium laptops and the "IBM innovation" campaign—they are trying to create this perception. I did want to take a moment to draw attention to the related innovation campaign site. It's been around for a while, but I recently came back to it and noticed that the homepage was leveraging Lazlo's web 2.0 platform on the homepage. The Lazlo technology allows content on the homepage to expand, contract, and makes use of the "sliding panel" technique to allow for more information in a small viewing space.
Techniques and technology aside—it's worth noting both the strategy and execution. I know first hand what it's like to work with large IT-driven organizations (HP) and getting them to embrace a direction like this is not always easy. Now we'll just have to see if the customer buys it.
Funny—this is sort of related to my last post though totally unintenional. Article in Businessweek suggests that "it feels like 1998" all over again.
“Are we or are we not in an Internet bubble? The debate flares up at industry parties, conferences, and in blog discussions like a never-ending marital spat, dragging in even those who are tired of the question. John Doerr, partner at venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, won't even use the word bubble, preferring to call the late '90s "the boom."
I have no idea if this is a bubble or not—but having survived the dot-com downturn without losing my job (thankfully), I would offer up this perspective. Let's learn from what happened in the late 90's. The creative spirit was good. The arrogance was bad. Let's re-capture the creative spirit, mix it with the wisdom we've all gained since—and do some things for people that somehow makes life just a little bit better.
Complete with a host of Human facial expressions and the ability to respond to questions—The Repliee Q2 combines artificial intelligence with robotics.
Next week is going to be an exciting one in Chicago if you are into customer experience, brand strategy, experience design, innovation, creativity and business. On May 16-17, the IIT's Institute of Design is holding a two day conference, titled Strategy 06. Here is the description:
“The Institute of Design Strategy Conference is an
international executive forum addressing how businesses can use design
to explore emerging opportunities, solve complex problems, and achieve
lasting strategic advantage.”
And right on it's heels is Beyond Usability 2.0, (May 17-18) featuring Adaptive Path:
"Are you involved in building interactive products? If you are a business owner, designer, technologist, or information architect, you will benefit from taking these four deep dives into essential aspects of digital product design: company insight, user research, information architecture, and interaction design.
This is a hands-on workshop. At the end of these two days, you will have the confidence to practice these methods in your work life."
I'll be attending the IIT Strategy conference where I'll be hosting a lunch round table discussion around the following topic:
“Playing In, Around and Outside of Your Sandbox
An Ad agency designs an experiential retail store in Times Square.
A Product Design shop creates an interactive marketing campaign for a global company.
A Marketing firm designs the interface for a leading gaming device.
What’s going on here? Why are some organizations “playing outside” of their immediate disciplines?
There seems to be an evolution going on before our very eyes. Organizations that understand how to plan, architect and design customer experiences are now doing work that may have previously been outside of their immediate offerings in the past. So what does this mean to the industry? Will skills become more specialized or generalized? Are walls coming down or is this just a natural progression? And how does this influence interdisciplinary teams positioned on the front lines?”
—The IIT event will also feature Bruce Nussbaum from Businessweek (view video from last year).
Bruce has become one of the most effective design/innovation
Evangelists to bridge the creative and business worlds.
Should be an exciting week in Chicago!
A few weeks ago, I conducted an experiment. I posted my "Experience Map" on this blog. Primarily because I was curious to see what—if anything would happen. The map illustrates tools and techniques that I am either using (or trying to).
The results have been surprising. Most recently, the map was referenced on Businessweek's design blog by Bruce Nussbaum.
I have to say, I'm totally shocked (and humbled) that this artifact has been passed around the blogoshpere. It's taught me a thing or two about the power of blogs and how ideas are shared—and connections made. I consider Bruce to be one of my heroes. He embodies design evangelism and is respected by both the business and creative worlds. Not an easy feat to accomplish.
The main purpose of his post was to call attention to Mark Vanderbeeken's Putting People First. Mark is another individual who is doing great things for design and business. If you're into Experience Design, Mark's blog should be on your list of reading material. And he keeps his blog fresh daily. I don't know how he does it.
Back to the Experience Map. I've gotten some really great comments on it, and if I can find some free time in between this blog, the full-time career, and family—I plan to update it. I'm hoping that the Interactive Marketing community will embrace (or at least consider) what Experience Designers (and planners, architects etc.) have to offer. When Brand + Experience come together. Great things happen.
PS. The Experience Map has been referenced on the following blogs:
Putting People First
I'm always looking for a decent case study that blends product innovation with marketing, brand, design and customer experience. Here's a decent one. Method—"for people against dirty".
Let's start here. Eric Ryan, one of Method's co-founders asked this question: "Why do people hide their household products under the sink?" Apparently, he attempted to answer his own question and Method was born. Method creates cleaning products that not only look good displayed in your home—the ultra attractive packaging makes them difficult to ignore on the retail shelf. Just ask my wife. And the hand wash in particular combines a great scent with a rich texture. Method could have just chosen to focus on what was inside the container, but instead they chose to give just as much attention to the shapes and materials holding their formulas.
People against dirty. For Method, it's more than just a catchy tag line. Method products consist of non-toxic materials, and are not tested on animals. In addition to clean consciences, Method believes in "home-love"—walking in the door after a long day or "vexing set of errands and breathing the pure fresh vitality of the place that Dorothy wished for" (as in Dorothy from the Wizard of OZ.) In short, you could say that Method believes in clean body, mind and spirit. Far from just selling cleaning products.
Let's start with the site. Like the products and brand—it's about clean. The visually attractive products get center stage treatment—it's effortless to browse through them and view different fragrances etc. Then, if you decide you want to purchase something on the spot—it's easy to do so.
E-commerce and an attractive Website are not enough. Last year Method launched a viral campaign at come clean.com. The campaign was wildly successful—spread across the Internet and won lots of awards. Why? Because it invited people to anonymously confess their secrets and "come clean" with a quick squirt of Method hand soap and a nice rinse. Using video, and simple but delightful interactivity—the experience draws you in by sampling other people's confessions. And how can anyone resist that?
Great Article in BusinessWeek about Whirpool's investments in innovation.
Comprehensive deck featuring real world case-studies (or project stories if you prefer) and behind-the-scenes efforts. Great reference material for seeing Experience Design approach, techniques and methodologies in action. Authored by Marc Rettig and Aradhana Goel.
Great article in Businessweek written by Diego Rodiguez of IDEO. In it, he talks about considering the entire "business ecosystem" when looking to connect with customers. A few select excerpts:
The "Experience Map" is something I visualized a couple of months ago in an attempt to illustrate what an "ideal" scenario might look like when planning, architecting and designing an interactive experience. It's a work in progress—but I'm using it internally to help generate discussion and create dialog between different disciplines. Feedback welcome.
In Cathy Clift's recent article titled Account Planning in the New Age of Customer Centricity, Cathy makes some compelling points about how traditional Account Planning is poised to evolve into a discipline that analyzes the customer journey as a collection of experiences—and provides insights on how to reach the customer on their terms. She also references Ideo's method cards. Interestingly enough—I recently busted these out at a meeting to help fuel some ideas. It will be interesting to see how this dialogue continues. Worth reading. Below are a few select quotes:
“Account planning, a staple of multi-national networks in the pre-dot.com bust era, is enjoying resurgence as clients once again focus on strategies for growth. But our world has changed radically since the core tenets of account planning were established by Jane Newman in the late 1980’s – and now it’s time for a re-think.”
“Clients are reacting by shifting their marketing dollars away from mass media and towards a more targeted strategy, incorporating more customized content. But what’s changing is more than just media strategy. What is emerging is a profound shift in clients’ marketing philosophies—away from the product-centric culture that we’re all familiar with, and towards a new age of customer centricity that leading retailer Best Buy calls “a journey towards a deeper relationship with the customer.”
“The lesson for agencies is that our old product (advertising) tells consumers what to expect from the brand—but the real equities are created by experiencing the brand in action.”
“A third short-cut is to take a leaf out of the book of leading design companies such as Ideo, which have been finding imaginative ways to understand brand experience for many years. Ideo has crafted a set of systematic research methods for understanding what the firm calls “human factors”, organized under the headings “Learn”, “Look”, “Ask” and “Try”. If you don’t have time to undertake even a compressed ethnographic study of actual brand users, Ideo has developed techniques for enabling you to re-create the experience for yourself. And after years of internal use, it has collected those techniques into a set of 51 funky oversized cards that anyone can buy for $49.”
“As the power of the image makers is eroded, we now have an opportunity to re-invent ourselves as “experience planners” and borrow new tools of insight from the worlds of anthropology, psychology, biomechanics and similar disciplines to power our success. While unexplored territory for some, the more we can guide the overall brand experience across the customer lifecycle, the more value we will add to both our agency and our clients.”
How BMW Turns Art into Profit
Wonderful article from the Harvard Business Review featuring Chris Bangle from BMW. It's a great real- world case study that provides an inside look at how the premium brand balances creativity with business:
Stanford University is offering a new progam aimed at harnessing creativity. Below is an excerpt of the course description:
“Learning how to become a better design thinker will be a major focus of this course. Students will apply the “build to think” philosophy of the d.school and create prototypes of everything from viral marketing campaigns to entire businesses. While there will substantial helpings of theory delivered throughout the quarter, this is a course for people who want to get their hands dirty, to get out in the world and do things.”
In Tom Kelly's latest book "The 10 Faces of Innovation" internal personas are used to help illustrate traits critical in building an innovation culture. Here's how they break down:
Individuals and organizations need to constantly gather new sources of information in order to expand their knowledge and grow, so the first three personas are learning roles. These personas are driven by the idea that no matter how successful a company currently is, no one can afford to be complacent. The world is changing at an accelerated pace, and today's great idea may be tomorrow's anachronism. The learning roles help keep your team from becoming too internally focused and remind the organization not to be so smug about what you know. People who adopt the learning roles are humble enough to question their own worldview, and in doing so, they remain open to new insights every day.
1. The Anthropologist brings new learning and insights into the organization by observing human behavior and developing a deep understanding of how people interact physically and emotionally with products, services, and spaces. When an Ideo human-factors person camps out in a hospital room for 48 hours with an elderly patient undergoing surgery, she is living the life of the anthropologist and helping to develop new health-care services.
2. The Experimenter prototypes new ideas continuously, learning by a process of enlightened trial and error. The Experimenter takes calculated risks to achieve success through a state of "experimentation as implementation." When BMW bypassed all its traditional advertising channels and created theater-quality short films for bmwfilms.com, no one knew whether the experiment would succeed. Its runaway success underscores the rewards that flow to Experimenters.
3. The Cross-Pollinator explores other industries and cultures, then translates those findings and revelations to fit the unique needs of your enterprise. An open-minded Japanese businesswoman was taken with the generic beer she found in a U.S. supermarket. She brought the idea home, and it eventually became the "no brand" Mujirushi Ryohin chain, a 300-store, billion-dollar retail empire. That's the leverage of a Cross-Pollinator.
The next three personas are organizing roles, played by individuals who are savvy about the often counterintuitive process of how organizations move ideas forward. At Ideo, we used to believe that the ideas should speak for themselves. Now we understand what the Hurdler, the Collaborator, and the Director have known all along: that even the best ideas must continuously compete for time, attention, and resources. Those who adopt these organizing roles don't dismiss the process of budget and resource allocation as "politics" or "red tape." They recognize it as a complex game of chess, and they play to win.
4. The Hurdler knows that the path to innovation is strewn with obstacles and develops a knack for overcoming or outsmarting those roadblocks. When the 3M worker who invented masking tape decades ago had his idea initially rejected, he refused to give up. Staying within his $100 authorization limit, he signed a series of $99 purchase orders to pay for critical equipment needed to produce the first batch. His perseverance paid off, and 3M has reaped billions of dollars in cumulative profits because an energetic Hurdler was willing to bend the rules.
5. The Collaborator helps bring eclectic groups together, and often leads from the middle of the pack to create new combinations and multidisciplinary solutions. Not long ago, Kraft Foods and Safeway sat down to figure out how to knock down the traditional walls between supplier and retailer. One strategy--a way to streamline the transfer of goods from one to the other--didn't just save labor and carrying costs. The increased efficiency sent sales of Capri Sun juice drinks, for example, soaring by 167% during one promotion.
6. The Director not only gathers together a talented cast and crew but also helps to spark their creative talents. When a creative Mattel executive assembles an ad hoc team of designers and project leaders, sequesters them for 12 weeks, and ends up with a new $100 million girls'-toy platform in three months, she is a role model for Directors everywhere.
The four remaining personas are building roles that apply insights from the learning roles and channel the empowerment from the organizing roles to make innovation happen. When people adopt the building personas, they stamp their mark on your organization. People in these roles are highly visible, so you'll often find them right at the heart of the action.
7. The Experience Architect designs compelling experiences that go beyond mere functionality to connect at a deeper level with customers' latent or expressed needs. When Cold Stone Creamery turns the preparation of a frozen dessert into a fun, dramatic performance, it is designing a successful new customer experience. The premium prices and marketing buzz that follow are rewards associated with playing the role of the Experience Architect.
8. The Set Designer creates a stage on which innovation team members can do their best work, transforming physical environments into powerful tools to influence behavior and attitude. Companies such as Pixar and Industrial Light & Magic recognize that the right office environments can help nourish and sustain a creative culture. When the Cleveland Indians discovered a renewed winning ability in a brand-new stadium, they demonstrated the value of the Set Designer. Organizations that tap into the power of the Set Designer sometimes discover remarkable performance improvements that make all the space changes worthwhile.
9. The Caregiver builds on the metaphor of a health-care professional to deliver customer care in a manner that goes beyond mere service. Good Caregivers anticipate customer needs and are ready to look after them. When you see a service that's really in demand, there's usually a Caregiver at the heart of it. Best Cellars, a retailer that takes the mystery and snobbery out of wine and makes it simple and fun, is demonstrating the Caregiver role--while earning a solid profit at the same time.
10. The Storyteller builds both internal morale and external awareness through compelling narra-tives that communicate a fundamental human value or reinforce a specific cultural trait. Companies from Dell to Starbucks have lots of corporate legends that support their brands and build camaraderie within their teams. Medtronic, celebrated for its product innovation and consistently high growth, reinforces its culture with straight-from-the-heart storytelling--patients' firsthand narratives of how the products changed or even saved their lives.
The appeal of the personas is that they work. Not in theory or in the classroom but in the unforgiving marketplace. Ideo has battle-tested them thousands of times in a real-world laboratory for innovation. The personas are about "being innovation" rather than merely "doing innovation." Take on one or more of these roles, and you'll be taking a conscious step toward becoming more of an innovator in your daily life.
For the second year in a row, Frog Design has partnered with Business 2.0 to conduct the Bottom Line Design Awards which rewards not just creativity—but results. Among the winners are Google Maps, Target RX, m&ms and the Dyson Vacuum. What's really nice about this kind of recognition, is that it stresses the practical value of creativity and innovation. These are all examples of how Design is used to sell products and build brands and make people happy.
From the website:
Ask most people what qualifies as good design and they’re likely to name a line of couture, a groundbreaking skyscraper, or a sleek piece of modern furniture. But why not a pill bottle, a bag of M&Ms, or a really cool-looking coffin? In the second annual Bottom Line Design Awards—a collaboration between Business 2.0 and the venerable Silicon Valley consulting firm frog design—we look beyond the surface to take a more holistic approach.
This year's winners don’t just look great; they’ve revolutionized old categories or engendered new ones, while also making a positive impact on the bottom lines of the companies that created them. In fact, design aesthetic was but one of 10 metrics we used to rate each product. We also considered user experience, brand strategy, sustainability, innovation, risk taking, corporate strategy, business impact, cultural impact, and the element of surprise.
A little over a year ago, I came across an article titled "Happiness is using the brain the right way" Download happiness.doc . The article was a really interesting piece—and more than a year later much of it seems to be coming to pass as we see left-brain and right-brained thinkers needing each other more than ever, while right-brainers enjoy more appreciation in recent years. Below are some choice exerpts:
“a ''Conceptual Age" is upon us. Thanks to a combination of globalization, outsourcing, and technology, many traditional white-collar jobs are either disappearing or being shipped overseas. When coupled with a growth in ''nonmaterial yearnings," he says, that paves the way for a US economy in which an MFA will be a more potent credential than an MBA, and growing clout will be wielded by creators, inventors, and storytellers.”
“Human evidence for his argument was gathered before him in a conference room at Design Continuum, in the form of an individualistic array of design strategists, marketing coordinators, and ''envisioners," who think of ways that new products can fit people's needs.”
The article also features Dank Pink, author of "A Whole New Mind"
Weaving Design into Motorola's Fabric
Terrific interview with Jim Wicks, Vice President of Motorola's Consumer Experience Design group. The interview goes on in some detail to lay out how Motorola's culture has shifted due to an influx of creative thinking and innovative product design. Jim doesn't give the latest products like RAZR or SLVR all the credit—but it's clear that the impact the breakthrough products have had are difficult to ignore. The interview is fairly comprehensive—but if you value Experience Design, it's very much worth the read. Here are a few choice highlights:
“The product is the brand. You build brand in our industry through the product and the experience. Those manifestations are tangible evidence of that change. It shapes what people internally and externally think about the company.”
“To me, innovation comes from a lot of different things. It could come from something completely unstructured or something structured.”
“A product by itself can't change a company. But, a product and a success can change a company. A product can start the change and can make people feel a part of that change.”
“Brand management is another example of where design is addressing
complexity. We launched RAZR with the intent of it becoming an
icon--not that I'm saying it is. But you can use the 'halo effect' of
that kind of a product.”
“The design group includes the disciplines of advanced mechanical, user interface, industrial design, research, material sciences, and more. In the past, this group was integrated with a lot of our businesses, and it was about inventing things.”
“We have this diversity, we behave differently, and we design differently now versus three years ago. We don't think of design as a group out in an ivory tower that conceptualizes things and then figures out how to make them. Nor is it, "We've got a strategy, and we're going throw the technologists at it, and then we're going try to wrap it up and make it look good.”
This post is a sanity check more than anything else. Most everyone in the business world these days seems to be saying "why yes—of course the customer is at the center of everything we do" which is often times followed by this statement "we need to be more innovative". Yet so few organizations truly practice this. The above graphic is sort of a mantra statement pulled from my personal site. These days, I'm finding that as common sense as this seems—it's difficult to pull off.
Remember those futuristic walking thingies from The Empire Strikes Back? This might have as well been the prototype. See what happens when they try to kick it over.
Chicago's own 37 Signals recently launched their new book, "Getting Real". Download 37s-introduction.pdf These guys are fantastic. They practice what they preach—and their interactive products demonstrate their philosophy. Worth the download and reasonable price.
“Getting Real is about skipping all the stuff that
represents real (charts, graphs, boxes, arrows, schematics, wirefames, etc.) and actually building the real thing. Getting real is less. Less mass, less software, less features, less paperwork, less of everything that’s not essential (and
most of what you think is essential actually isn’t).
Getting Real is staying small and being agile.
Getting Real starts with the interface, the real screens that people are going to use. It begins with what the customer actually experiences and builds backwards from there. This lets you get the interface right before you get the software wrong.
Getting Real is about iterations and lowering the
cost of change. Getting Real is all about launching,
tweaking, and constantly improving which makes
it a perfect approach for web-based software.
Getting Real delivers just what customers need
and eliminates anything they don’t.”
If you ever have to work with a Creative Director like this—run away. Run far away.
Shopping For Innovation
Interesting article that covers some relatively new thinking that the business world is embracing. Companies are actively seeking out agencies and firms of all sizes skilled in creativity, design and innovation. So what does this all mean? If you are on the agency or consultancy side, and have a body or work that's both innovative and strategically creative—then it's good news for you. However, it also means that clients are wising up to what innovation really is—and what to look for in a partner. So if you don't practice what you preach—you just might lose a potential client.
"Design can be brought in as a service, but it's important to remember that it's a creative service. Designers are smart and talented people who typically do "think out of the box" (a phrase more derided inside the design community than outside, yet still requested in more initial meetings than you can imagine). So although your desired outcome may be very specific, the designer's process to delivering your outcome will inevitably involve challenging its very foundations. Here's an illustration:
Q: How many designers does it take to change a light bulb?
A: Does it have to be a light bulb?
In real terms, this can be the difference between asking a designer to create a new vase, versus asking for a new way to display flowers in the home. The first problem statement already converges on a solution--perhaps prematurely. The second opens up new design opportunities, new target markets, and ultimately potential new revenue streams."